In coronary artery disease blood flow to the heart is obstructed due to blockage of the arteries. These blockages are usually due to plaques which built up in the interior of the artery wall due to several reasons. As these arteries are responsible for blood supply to the heart, its blockage leads to deficiency in the blood supply to the heart leading to deficit in the oxygen supply.
Symptoms of coronary artery disease include chest pain, fatigue, palpitations, abnormal heart rhythms and shortness of breath.
The rupturing of the coronary artery is called as heart attack in which the blood clot is formed due to the rupture and this clot can then completely lead to blockage of the blood through the coronary arteries. Heart attacks can be fatal.
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a type of surgery that improves blood flow to the heart. Surgeons use CABG to treat people who have severe coronary heart disease (CHD).
Purpose of CABG:
- During CABG, a healthy artery or vein from the body is connected, or grafted, to the blocked coronary artery. The grafted artery or vein bypasses creates a new path for oxygen-rich blood to flow to the heart muscle.
- The results of CABG usually are excellent. The surgery improves or completely relieves angina symptoms in most patients.
- CABG lowers risk of having a heart attack and aids longevity. Chances of developing coronary heart increase with age. Smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, and comorbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension can precipitate a heart attack. Surgeons can bypass multiple coronary arteries during one surgery.
- CABG improves your quality of life and reduces other CHD symptoms. It allows you to resume a more active lifestyle. It is a surgical intervention where surgery is the only option and anti-angina medications offer only limited benefit.
- Major arteries blockage, blockage above 70% narrowing the passage for the blood flow, CABG is the only option.
CABG is a sophisticated and intricate surgery and needs to be conducted in a specialised institute and operating theatre equipped to handle such cases. The trained cardio-vascular thoracic surgeons carry out such surgeries with their skilled team.
Post-surgery, the advice from the cardiologists, nutritionist and physiotherapist and other specialists must be adhered to. Regular exercise, weight control, positive attitude and regular medications help in complete recovery post-surgery.
Dietary control is an important tool to prevent recurring of the arterial blockages. Fatty and salty food, high blood lipid levels have propensity to block the blood vessels.
Thus, patients need to refrain from unhealthy life-style. The unaffected branches of the artery can also get blocked over the period of time and may call for surgery